Update

2021 TIP Revisions

TIP Revision 2021-01

Revision (PDF): 2021-01
Status: Approved
Type: Administrative Modification
Number of Projects: 25
Net Funding Change: $33,457,609
MTC Approval Date: 5/17/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: N/A
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: N/A

TIP Revision 2021-01 is an administrative modification that revises 25 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $33 million. Among other changes, this revision: updates the funding plan of the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District’s Suicide Deterrent System project to reflect the programming of $7.9 million in Surface Transportation Block Grant Program (STP) funds and to change the source for $7.7 million in funding from federal Highway Infrastructure Program (FHIP) to STP; updates the funding plan of the Solano I-80 Managed Lanes project to reflect additional programming of federal Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act (CRRSAA) funds through the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP); updates the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority’s (VTA) US 101/De L Cruz Blvd - Trimble Road I/C project to reflect the programming of $25 million in SB1 Local Partnership Program Competitive funds; updates the Bay Area Rapid Transit District’s (BART) Railcar Procurement and Transbay Core Capacity Programs to reflect changes in the funding plans including the addition of $562 million in FTA Capital Investment Grant (CIG) funds and $6.8 million in CRRSAA funds; and updates the funding plans and back-up listings of the Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) and Highway Bridge Program (HBP) funded grouped listing to reflect the latest programming information from Caltrans. The administrative modification is financially constrained by year and MTC relies on the State’s programming capacity in the amount of $25 million in SB1 Local Partnership Program funding, $562 million in FTA CIG funding, $1.8 million in HBP funding, $7.1 million in STIP funds, $350,000 in FTA Pilot Program for Transit-Oriented Development Planning grant funding, and $7.9 million in federal CRRSSAA funding to reflect the net change in funding over the four years of the TIP. MTC’s 2021 TIP, as revised with Revision No. 2021-01, remains in conformity with the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for air quality and the revision does not interfere with the timely implementation of the Transportation Control Measures contained in the SIP.

TIP Revision 2021-02

Revision (PDF): 2021-02
Status: Approved
Type: Administrative Modification
Number of Projects: 9
Net Funding Change: $278,029,000
MTC Approval Date: 6/17/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: N/A
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: N/A

TIP Revision 2021-02 is an administrative modification that revises nine projects with a net funding increase of approximately $278 million. Among other changes, this revision: updates the funding plans and back-up listings of five State Highway Operation and Protection Program (SHOPP) funded grouped listings to reflect the latest information from Caltrans, including the addition of $290 million in SHOPP funding to the active years of the TIP, and to split out the scope and funding for one sub-project to the Solano Transportation Authority’s Rio Vista State Route 12 Pavement Rehabilitation and Intersection Improvements project; and updates the funding plan of the Napa Valley Transportation Authority’s State Routes 12, 29, and 221 Soscol Junction Interchange Improvements project to reflect the award of $25 million in Road Repair and Accountability Act (SB1) Solutions for Congested Corridors Program funding and $422,000 in SB1 Local Partnership Program funding. The administrative modification is financially constrained by year and MTC relies on the State’s programming capacity in the amount of $25.4 million in SB1 funding and $290 million in SHOPP funding to reflect the net change in funding over the four years of the TIP.  MTC’s 2021 TIP, as revised with Revision No. 2021-02, remains in conformity with the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for air quality and the revision does not interfere with the timely implementation of the Transportation Control Measures contained in the SIP.

TIP Revision 2021-03

Revision (PDF): 2021-03
Status: Approved
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 57
Net Funding Change: $366,721,065
MTC Approval Date: 4/28/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: 5/12/2021
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: 5/21/2021

TIP Revision 2021-03 is an amendment that revises 57 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $367 million. Among other changes, this revision will: add seven new exempt projects and update 16 existing projects and 2 existing grouped listings to reflect the adoption of the FY2020-21 Transit Capital Priorities (TCP) Program of Projects; add three new exempt projects and update the funding plan of one existing project to reflect the approval of the state’s portion of Cycle 5 of the Active Transportation Program; add two new exempt projects and update the funding plan of one existing project to reflect the awards of discretionary funding from the Federal Transit Administration; add one new exempt project and update the funding plan of one existing project to reflect the award of funding through the One Bay Area Grant 2 Program (OBAG2); archive six projects; and carry forward changes made in the 2019 TIP that were not included in the Final 2021 TIP.  Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.

TIP Revision 2021-04

Revision (PDF): 2021-04
Status: Approved
Type: Administrative Modification
Number of Projects: 40
Net Funding Change: $110,248,859
MTC Approval Date: 7/1/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: N/A
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: N/A

TIP Revision 2021-04 is an administrative modification that revises 40 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $110 million. Among other changes, this revision: updates the funding plan of MTC’s 511 Next Generation project to reflect the award of $200,000 in Work Zone Data Exchange (WZDx) Demonstration Grant funds; updates the funding plans of 10 Regional/County Planning Activities project listings to reflect the award of regional Surface Transportation Block Grant (STP) funding through the Safe and Seamless Mobility Quick-Strike program; updates the funding plan of the Marin County portion of the Marin Sonoma Narrows Project to reflect the programming of Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) and federal Highway Infrastructure Program (FHIP) funds and to reflect the use of Advance Construction (AC) authorization; updates the funding plans of 10 projects to reflect recently approved changes in the Active Transportation Program (ATP), the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP), and the Local Partnership Program (LPP); and updates the funding plans of six Transit Capital Priories (TCP) funded Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Operating Support projects to reflect that ongoing funding is being combined into a new grouped listing and updates this grouped listing, two additional grouped listings and two individual listings to reflect recent changes to the TCP program.  The administrative modification is financially constrained by year and MTC relies on the State’s programming capacity in the amount of $3.8 million in ATP, $6.3 million in prior year FHIP funds, $200,000 in WZDx funds, $2.7 million in STIP funds and $722,000 in LPP funds to reflect the net change in funding over the four years of the TIP. MTC’s 2021 TIP, as revised with Revision No. 2021-04, remains in conformity with the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for air quality and the revision does not interfere with the timely implementation of the Transportation Control Measures contained in the SIP.

TIP Revision 2021-05

Revision (PDF): 2021-05
Status: Approved
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 22
Net Funding Change: $733,155,111
MTC Approval Date: 5/26/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: 7/1/2021
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: 7/16/2021

TIP Revision 2021-05 is an amendment that revises 22 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $733 million. Among other changes, this revision will: update the funding plans of eight projects, add one new exempt project, and add one new grouped listing to reflect the adoption of the latest round of the Transit Capital Priorities Program; update the total cost of the Golden Gate Bridge Seismic Retrofit Phase 3B project by adding $605 million in uncommitted funding outside of the active years of the 2021 TIP; add one new exempt regional Surface Transportation Block Grant Program (STP) funded project, update the scope of one existing STP funded project, and archive one completed STP funded project; add one new exempt Active Transportation Program funded project; add one new Federal Lands Highways Program and Tribal Transportation Program funded grouped listing to the TIP; and update the funding plans of six projects to add funding to the active years of the TIP.  Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.

TIP Revision 2021-06

Revision (PDF): 2021-06
Status: Approved
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 57
Net Funding Change: $313,850,305
MTC Approval Date: 6/23/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: 7/7/2021
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: 7/16/2021

TIP Revision 2021-06 is an amendment that revises 57 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $314 million. Among other changes, this revision will: add 23 new projects and update the funding plans of two existing projects to reflect the adoption of the Safe and Seamless Mobility Quick Strike Program; add five new projects and update the funding plans of 20 existing projects to reflect the recent adoption of the latest round of the Transit Capital Priorities Program; update the Caltrain Electrification and San Francisco Central Subway projects to reflect the recent awards of Federal Transit Administration New Starts funding from the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021; and archive two projects as they have been completed.  Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.

Revision: 2021-07

Revision (PDF): 2021-07
Status: Approved
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 53
Net Funding Change: $686,063,624
MTC Approval Date: 7/28/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: 7/30/2021
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: 8/4/2021

TIP Revision 2021-07 is an amendment that revises 53 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $686 million. Among other changes, this revision: adds seven new projects, deletes one existing project and updates five other existing projects to reflect recent changes in the regional Surface Transportation Block Grant Program (STP), the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ), and the Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act (CRRSAA) Program; adds three new projects to reflect the programming of Transit Capital Priorities (TCP) Program funds; adds two new projects and updates the funding plans of two existing projects to reflect the award of funding through the Active Transportation Program (ATP), the Federal Transit Administration’s Capital Investment Grants (CIG) program, the Road Repair and Accountability Act’s Local Partnership Program (SB1-LPP), and the California Natural Resource Agency’s grant program; and adds seven new projects, combines two existing projects, and updates the scope or funding plans of six other existing projects to reflect local programming decisions.  Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.

Revision: 2021-08

Revision (PDF): 2021-08
Status: Approved
Type: Administrative Modification
Number of Projects: 23
Net Funding Change: $26,086,617
MTC Approval Date: 8/4/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: N/A
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: N/A

TIP Revision 2021-08 is an administrative modification that revises 23 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $26 million. Among other changes, this revision: updates the funding plans of 11 regional Surface Transportation Block Grant/ Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (STP/CMAQ) funded projects to reflect recent programming changes including the adoption of the Safe and Seamless Mobility Quick-Strike program; updates the funding plans of six projects to reflect programming changes in the Active Transportation Program (ATP), the Road Repair and Accountability Act – Local Partnership Program (SB1-LPP), State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP), High Priority Program earmark program (HPP), Construction of Ferry Boats and Ferry Terminal Facilities Formula Program (FBP); and updates the funding plans and back-up listings of the Railroad Highway Crossing program and Lifeline Transportation Program group listings to reflect the latest programming decisions.  The administrative modification is financially constrained by year and MTC relies on the State’s programming capacity in the amount of $3 million in ATP funds, $167,765 in HPP funds, $624,745 in FBP funds, $9.5 million in Section 130 Railroad-Highway Crossing funds, $410,180 in Urban Greening Grant funds, $235,369 in Proposition 1B California Transit Security Grant Program funds,  $11 million in STIP funds and $47 million in SB1-LPP funds to reflect the net change in funding over the four years of the TIP.  MTC’s 2021 TIP, as revised with Revision No. 2021-08, remains in conformity with the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for air quality and the revision does not interfere with the timely implementation of the Transportation Control Measures contained in the SIP.

Revision: 2021-09

Revision (PDF): 2021-09
Status: Approved
Type: Administrative Modification
Number of Projects: 7
Net Funding Change: $87,814,143
MTC Approval Date: 8/20/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: N/A
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: N/A

TIP Revision 2021-09 is an administrative modification that revises seven projects with a net funding increase of approximately $88 million. Among other changes, this revision: updates the funding plans of four projects to reflect changes in the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ), the Road Repair and Accountability Act – Trade Corridor Enhancement Program (SB1-TCEP), the Road Repair and Accountability Act – Local Streets and Roads Program (SB1-LSRP), and the Infill Infrastructure Grant Program (IIG); and updates the funding plans and back-up listings of three State Highway Operation and Protection Program (SHOPP) group listings to reflect the latest programming decisions.  The administrative modification is financially constrained by year and MTC relies on the State’s programming capacity in the amount of $87 million in SHOPP funds, $146,040 in Community Development Block Grant funds, $1 million in IIG funds, $55 million in SB1-TCEP, and $256,832 in SB1-LSRP funds to reflect the net change in funding over the four years of the TIP.  MTC’s 2021 TIP, as revised with Revision No. 2021-09, remains in conformity with the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for air quality and the revision does not interfere with the timely implementation of the Transportation Control Measures contained in the SIP.

TIP Revision: 2021-10

Revision (PDF): 2021-10
Status: Approved
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 18
Net Funding Change: $3,607,893,000
MTC Approval Date: 10/21/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: 11/8/2021
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: 12/3/2021

Amendment 2021-10 serves to conform the 2021 TIP to Plan Bay Area 2050.  It makes revisions to 18 projects with a net increase in funding of approximately $3.6 billion.  Among other changes, the revision: updates 10 existing projects in the 2021 TIP to reflect changes in scope or cost that are included in Plan Bay Area 2050; and adds eight new projects to the 2021 TIP.  This amendment also includes a supplemental listing of the projects currently included in the 2021 TIP and their corresponding Plan Bay Area 2050 projects. The project changes in TIP Amendment 2021-10 and the supplemental listing together demonstrate that the 2021 TIP, as revised, is consistent with Plan Bay Area 2050.  The Transportation-Air Quality Conformity Analysis: Plan Bay Area 2050 and Amended 2021 TIP that accompanies the TIP amendment demonstrates that the amended TIP is consistent with ("conform to") the federal air quality plan known as the State Implementation Plan (SIP), as required by federal conformity regulations. The Transportation-Air Quality Conformity Analysis is posted on the Plan Bay Area 2050 website.  In accordance with MTC's public participation plan, TIP Amendment 2021-10 and the accompanying Transportation-Air Quality Conformity Analysis were released for public review and comment on July 7, 2021, and the review period closed on August 5, 2021. No significant comments were received on these documents.  For more information, please visit planbayarea.org/finalplan2050 and the Meetings and Events page.

Revision: 2021-11

Revision (PDF): 2021-11
Status: Approved
Type: Administrative Modification
Number of Projects: 90
Net Funding Change: $143,447,209
MTC Approval Date: 1/14/2022
Caltrans Approval Date: N/A
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: N/A

TIP Revision 2021-11 is an administrative modification that revises 90 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $143 million. Among other changes, this revision: Updates the funding plans of 68 regional Surface Transportation Block Grant Program/Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (STP/ CMAQ) funded projects to reflect planned and actual obligations; Updates the funding plans and back-up listings of the Federal Lands Highways Program/Tribal Transportation Program funded group listing, the Local Highway Bridge Program (HBP) funded group listing, and six State Highway Operation and Protection Program (SHOPP) funded group listings to reflect the latest information from Caltrans; and Updates the funding plans of six individually listed projects to reflect the latest programming decisions in the HBP, the Core Capacity Challenge Grant Program, and the Safe and Seamless Mobility Quick-Strike Program.  The administrative modification is financially constrained by year and MTC relies on the State’s programming capacity in the amount of $107 million in SHOPP funds, $598 in repurposed earmark funds, $1 million in HBP funds, $42,526 in Tribal Transportation Program funds, $739,000 in California Transportation Commission managed Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act funds, and $50,000 in Road Repair and Accountability Act - Local Streets and Roads Program funds to reflect the net change in funding over the four years of the TIP.  MTC’s 2021 TIP, as revised with Revision No. 2021-11, remains in conformity with the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for air quality and the revision does not interfere with the timely implementation of the Transportation Control Measures contained in the SIP.

TIP Revision: 2021-12

Revision (PDF): 2021-12
Status: Approved
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 24
Net Funding Change: $81,684,470
MTC Approval Date: 12/15/2021
Caltrans Approval Date: 1/28/2022
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: 2/11/2022

TIP Revision 2021-12 is an amendment that revises 24 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $82 million. Among other changes, this revision: amends three new exempt projects into the TIP and updates one existing project to reflect the award of funding through the Active Transportation Program (ATP); amends eight new exempt projects into the TIP, updates two existing projects and deletes one project to reflect the award of regional Surface Transportation Block Grant Program (STP) and Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act (CRRSAA) funds; amends one new exempt Transit Capital Priorities project into the TIP; splits out the ongoing and future extensions of the Sonoma Marin Area Rail Transit system and mutli-use pathway to a new project listing and archives the completed segments from the TIP; and archives two other projects from the TIP as the funding has been obligated.  Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.

Revision: 2021-13

Revision (PDF): 2021-13
Status: Approved
Type: Administrative Modification
Number of Projects: 5
Net Funding Change: $0
MTC Approval Date: 2/18/2022
Caltrans Approval Date: N/A
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: N/A

TIP Revision 2021-13 is an administrative modification that revises five projects with no net change in funding. Among other changes, this revision: updates the funding plans of three projects to reflect the latest programming decisions and obligations; and updates the description of Alameda CTC’s I-680 Express Lane Gap Closure: SR-84 to Alcosta Blvd. project and the Bike Share Capital Program to better reflect the existing scopes of the projects.  The administrative modification is financially constrained by year.  MTC’s 2021 TIP, as revised with Revision No. 2021-13, remains in conformity with the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for air quality and the revision does not interfere with the timely implementation of the Transportation Control Measures contained in the SIP.

TIP Revision: 2021-14

Revision (PDF): 2021-14
Status: Approved
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 6
Net Funding Change: $5,406,171
MTC Approval Date: 1/26/2022
Caltrans Approval Date: 3/2/2022
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: 3/11/2022

TIP Revision 2021-14 is an amendment that revises six projects with a net funding increase of approximately $5.4 million. Among other changes, this revision: adds three new projects to reflect the recent adoption of the Climate Initiatives Program Mobility Hubs Pilot Program; adds two new projects to reflect changes in the One Bay Area Grant (OBAG2) County Program; and updates one Local Highway Bridge Program-funded project to reflect the latest programming information from Caltrans.  Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.

Revision: 2021-15

Revision (PDF): 2021-15
Status: Approved
Type: Administrative Modification
Number of Projects: 14
Net Funding Change: $195,029,981
MTC Approval Date: 3/24/2022
Caltrans Approval Date: N/A
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: N/A

TIP Revision 2021-15 is an administrative modification that revises 14 projects with a net increase in funding of $195 million. Among other changes, this revision: updates the funding plan of one existing Active Transportation Program (ATP) funded project to reflect the latest programming decisions; updates the funding plans of three Surface Transportation Block Grant Program/Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (STP/CMAQ) funded projects to reflect planned and actual obligations; updates the funding plan of the San Francisco County Transportation Authority’s Yerba Buena Island (YBI) Ramp Improvements project to reflect the award of $18 million in Rebuilding American Infrastructure with Sustainability and Equity (RAISE) funds; updates the funding plan of the Clipper 2.0 Fare Payment System project to reflect the advance of $30 million in One Bay Area Grant 3 (OBAG 3) funding to active years of the TIP; and updates the funding plans and back-up listings of five State Highway Operation and Protection Program (SHOPP) funded group listings to reflect the latest information from Caltrans.  The administrative modification is financially constrained by year.  MTC’s 2021 TIP, as revised with Revision No. 2021-15, remains in conformity with the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for air quality and the revision does not interfere with the timely implementation of the Transportation Control Measures contained in the SIP.

TIP Revision: 2021-16

Revision (PDF): 2021-16
Status: Approved
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 2
Net Funding Change: $12,246,000
MTC Approval Date: 2/23/2022
Caltrans Approval Date: 4/11/2022
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: 4/22/2022

TIP Revision 2021-16 is an amendment that revises two projects with a net funding increase of approximately $12 million. This revision will add two new Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) funded projects to the TIP to reflect the latest changes in the Climate Initiatives Program Mobility Hubs Pilot Program and the Regional Active Operation Management Program.  Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.

TIP Revision: 2021-18

Revision (PDF): 2021-18
Status: Proposed
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 34
Net Funding Change: $139,743,694
MTC Approval Date: 3/23/2022
Caltrans Approval Date: Pending
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: Pending

TIP Revision 2021-18 is an amendment that revises two projects with a net funding increase of approximately $140 million. Among other changes, this revision: adds 13 new regional Surface Transportation Block Grant Program (STP) projects and one new Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) funded project to the TIP and updates 14 existing STP funded projects to reflect programming decisions in the One Bay Area Grant 2 and 3 (OBAG2 and OBAG3) programs; and archives five projects as they have been completed or all federal funding has been obligated. Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.

TIP Revision: 2021-20

Revision (PDF): 2021-20
Status: Proposed
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 28
Net Funding Change: $444,378,128
MTC Approval Date: 4/27/2022
Caltrans Approval Date: Pending
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: Pending

Revision 2021-20 is an amendment that revises 28 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $444.4 million. Among other changes, this revision: updates Santa Rosa CityBus’s Electric Bus Replacement project to reflect the award of $4.3 million in FTA Grants for Bus and Bus Facilities Program funds; updates WETA’s Electric Vessels and Related Infrastructure project to reflect the award of $3.4 million in FTA Passenger Ferry Grant Program funds; adds Fairfield’s West Texas St Complete Streets project to the TIP to reflect the award of approximately $11 million in statewide Active Transportation Program Cycle 5 funds; adds 11 new projects and updates 10 existing projects to partially reflect the recent adoption of the Transit Capital Priorities Program for FY2021-22 to FY2023-24; and updates four existing projects to reflect the latest programming decisions in the One Bay Area Grant (OBAG) 2 Program. Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.

TIP Revision: 2021-21

Revision (PDF): 2021-21
Status: Proposed
Type: Amendment
Number of Projects: 31
Net Funding Change: $508,006,146
MTC Approval Date: 5/25/2022
Caltrans Approval Date: Pending
FTA/FHWA Approval Date: Pending

Revision 2021-21 is an amendment that revises 31 projects with a net funding increase of approximately $508 million. Among other changes, this revision: adds one new exempt project and updates the funding plans of 11 existing projects to reflect the latest programming decisions in the Transit Capital Priorities Program; adds Tri-Delta Transit’s Hydrogen Fueling Station project to reflect the award of $4 million in FTA Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program funds; adds one new project and updates five existing projects to reflect the latest programming decisions in the State Transportation Improvement Program; adds two new projects, updates two existing projects and deletes three existing projects to reflect changes in the One Bay Area Grant 2 (OBAG2) Program; adds one new locally funded project; and archives four projects from the TIP. Changes made with this revision do not affect the air quality conformity finding or conflict with the financial constraint requirements.